Innovative development of edible fungus factory production
In recent years, with the continuous adjustment and deepening of the agricultural structure, driven by production technology and equipment manufacturing, the industrial production of edible fungi in my country has developed rapidly, becoming another modern and efficient agriculture that promotes the economic development of the county and drives the people to get rid of poverty and become rich. Since 2020, affected by consumers' low awareness of mushroom products, the growth of market demand in the short term cannot quickly absorb the increase in supply brought about by new production capacity, and the profit margin of factory mushroom products has generally declined. Coupled with the repeated impact of the new crown epidemic on consumption and logistics, the sales prices of factory mushrooms have fluctuated and declined. The superposition of multiple factors has caused some enterprises in the industry to decline in overall efficiency and show significant losses. How to innovate and develop the industry under such circumstances to cope with the downturn in the industry? 1. The number of enterprises
As of December 2021, there were a total of 337 edible mushroom factory production enterprises in the country, and the number of enterprises decreased by 80 compared with 417 in 2019 (there is no statistics in 2020 due to the epidemic, the same below), a decrease of 19%.
Among the 337 edible fungi industrialized production enterprises in the country, there are 71 in Jiangsu Province, 51 in Fujian Province, 26 in Shandong Province, 24 in Zhejiang Province, and 23 in Henan Province, which are the five major industrial enterprise clusters. The number of enterprises in other provinces and municipalities increased or decreased slightly, but not much.
2. The total annual output of the factory
According to the summary of data statistics, the total industrial production of edible fungi in China in 2021 will be 2.804 million tons, a decrease of 632,800 tons or 18% from 3.4368 million tons in 2019.
3. Gross output value
In 2020, the total output value will reach about 35 billion Factory-made main mushroom varieties
4.The output of different varieties
In the total annual production of 2.804 million tons of edible fungi:
Flammulina velutipes 1,231,300 tons, accounting for 44%;
Pleurotus eryngii 667,800 tons, accounting for 24%;
Agaricus bisporus 279,700 tons, accounting for 10%;
5. Yield of different varieties
(1) Enoki Mushroom: In 2021, the daily output of industrialized enoki mushrooms will reach 4,807 tons, an increase of 308.64 tons, or 6.86%, from the daily output of 4,498.36 tons in 2019.
(2) King Oyster Mushroom: In 2021, the daily output of industrialized Pleurotus eryngii is 2,141 tons, a decrease of 1,036.45 tons, or 33%, compared with the daily output of 3,177.45 tons in 2019.
(3) Agaricus bisporus: The daily output of industrialized Agaricus bisporus in 2021 will be 972.2 tons, an increase of 294 tons or 43% from 678.2 tons in 2019.
6. Advantages of factory development
The production process of edible fungi in the United States, the Netherlands, Poland and other countries is mature, but the labor cost is high. Therefore, almost all edible fungi production is factory-based. In recent years, the factory production of edible fungi in China has made great progress. With the improvement of consumers' requirements for product quality, the increase of labor costs, and the improvement of equipment and facilities performance, factory production will continue to maintain rapid growth.
Compared with traditional production methods, the advantages of industrial production of edible fungi are increasingly prominent:
(1) The product quality is safe and reliable, and safe and high-quality production can be achieved by controlling the safety of raw materials and accurately controlling environmental conditions.
(2) The number of products is controllable, which can stabilize the supply market and avoid the impact of seasonal listing on sellers and consumers.
(3) The labor intensity is low, and mechanized and automated production is realized.
(4) With less labor input, through the application of intelligent equipment and facilities, some production links can basically be unmanned.
(5) The production efficiency is high, because the environmental conditions can be precisely regulated, and efficient production can be achieved through shelf cultivation. Taking the Flammulina velutipes factory as an example, the annual output exceeds 1 ton per 667 square meters of land (including living areas). 7. Problems existing in factory
In recent years, there have been a series of problems in the edible mushroom industrialization industry, mainly in:
(1) The overall market price is down, and the profitability of production enterprises is worrying, and there is a situation of "not prosperous in peak season and even weaker in off-season"
(2) The product structure is unreasonable, the production technology reserve is insufficient, and the market concentration is too high;
The first three: Flammulina velutipes, king oyster mushrooms, bisporus mushrooms
(3) The production capacity of strains is insufficient, and the development of new cultivation substrates is weak
(4) Equipment and equipment are seriously aging, and some export products have quality and safety problems
(5) Insufficient deep processing and serious homogenization
(6) There is a large gap in professional and technical personnel, and the utilization rate of resources is not high 8. Suggestions for industrial development
(1) Strengthen the selection and breeding of high-quality varieties and establish a standardized breeding technology system
(2) Increase the independent research and development of machinery and equipment, and speed up the pace of "machine substitution"
(3) Extend the industrial chain and enhance the added value of products
(4) Establish standardized production management standards and increase talent training efforts
(5) Expand catering consumption of edible fungi and implement brand strategy
(6) Moderately control the scale and participate in the global market competition