Development Trend of Morel Industry in China
1. Seasonal supply develops to annual production
At present, morels in my country are mainly concentrated from January to April, and fresh mushrooms are supplied seasonally. Especially from the end of February to March, a large number of fresh morels are on the market, and the market fluctuates greatly. Therefore, it is the future development direction to carry out out-of-season cultivation or factory cultivation of Morchella to realize the annual supply of fresh products. At present, although the experiment of fruiting in staggered seasons and the exploration of fruiting in factories have been carried out in alpine regions, the key technologies to improve the success rate, stability and yield of fruiting cultivation still need further research.
2. Cultivation technology develops towards standardization and standardization
At present, the cultivation of Morchella in my country is mainly based on open field substrate-free cultivation, but the cultivation and management techniques are uneven and the cultivation methods are diverse. Cultivation facilities include steel frame double-layer shade shed, shade net insulation shed, simple shade net shed, etc.; according to the height of the greenhouse, it can be divided into high shed, flat shed, low shed, etc.; In the process of cultivation management, there are management methods of mulching and non-mulching; There are many ways of laminating, such as white film, black film, direct lamination or small arched shed lamination, lamination perforation or no perforation; Water management includes direct irrigation, drip irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, etc.; The storage time of the nutrient bag includes placing it directly within 25d after sowing. Many of these different cultivation and management methods have no scientific basis, and most of the cultivation and management methods are rigged, not adapted to local conditions, scientific management, and precise policies. This is also the main reason for the failure of morel cultivation. In recent years, with the continuous accumulation of morel cultivation technology and the continuous strengthening of cultivation producers' awareness of standardized management, the whole process of morel cultivation has become more and more standardized. It can be seen that the standardization and standardized cultivation of Morchella cultivation technology in my country is the development direction of Morchella cultivation.
3. Continuous extension of industrial chain and increase of added value
At present, the main types of Morchella products are divided into fresh products, dry products and frozen products. Generally speaking, it is still mainly processed products. Fresh morel mushrooms are marketed at a concentrated time, with seasonal oversupply and large price fluctuations. Unsalable fresh products or fresh products of average quality are usually dried, with single products and low added value. With the vigorous development of the morel industry, the supply and demand relationship of products tends to be balanced, the profits of primary processed products are gradually reduced, and increasing the added value of products is an inevitable trend of industrial development. Strengthening the research and industrialization of morel preservation technology, quick-freezing technology, health care products and leisure ready-to-eat food development technology, extending the industrial chain, increasing the added value of products, forming a diversified product pattern, and satisfying different consumer groups are the trend of industrial development. .