The main insect pests of bagged shiitake mushroom and prevention and control technology
I. Main species of insect pests
At present, some species of Diptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Arachnida are common insect pests in the production of shiitake mushrooms.
Insect pests of Diptera in shiitake cultivation include mushroom mosquitoes, mushroom mosquitoes, gall mosquitoes, etc. These insect pests are caused by larvae burrowing and feeding in the culture material and fruiting entities, resulting in darkening and loosening of the culture material, difficulties in mushroom production, and deformation of the fruiting entities. Adult mites carry pathogenic spores and mite eggs during reproduction, causing secondary contamination.
Lepidoptera are mainly noctuid moths with large larvae, the last instar larvae are 25-30 mm long and feed heavily, causing holes and defects to the cotyledons, and excrement can also cause mold and bacterial infestation.
There are many species of Sphingidae, such as Dewlapidae, Flatwormidae, Cereidae, Stegomycidae, Cryptomycidae, and Muscaridae, etc. These pests not only feed on the culture material and cotyledons during the cultivation period, but also need to be controlled during the storage period.
The mite species occurring in different types of edible mushroom cultivation are different. During the mushroom germination period, poor environmental cleanliness or mite eggs carried by the strain can cause mite damage. Due to the small size of mites and fast reproduction, the best prevention and control period is already missed when the mites form pink masses visible to the naked eye or when the mycelium fades.
Causes of pests
One female can lay 200-300 eggs at a time, and it takes only 5-6 days for a mite to complete one generation, and the adult mites are generally less than 1mm in length. In the research of different cultivation modes, it was found that the pest occurrence in the annual cultivation area was higher than that in the mono-season cultivation area; the pest occurrence in the mushroom emergence period in spring and autumn was higher than that in the winter emergence period; the higher the degree of mechanization and facility management in the bag making and mushroom emergence period, the lower the pest occurrence; the greenhouses with physical control facilities such as insect net and shade net in the mushroom emergence period were basically not found to have large-sized pests; the cultivation area and The incidence of pests in the cultivation area and the surrounding environment without waste accumulation is much lower than that in the cultivation area with dirty and poor environment.
Pest prevention and control techniques
Through the analysis of the causes, it can be seen that the occurrence of insect pests in bagged shiitake mushrooms is closely related to cultivation habits and facilities.
First of all, we should keep the cultivation area and the surrounding environment clean, timely clean up the waste, garbage, weeds and other sources that may become the breeding ground of insect pests, unused raw materials should be stacked in a dry, clean and rain-proof special raw materials warehouse, and the area outside the mushroom room and mushroom shed can be used regularly to kill insects with drugs. Thorough disinfection and insecticide are carried out in the vacant period in the germination room and mushroom shed to reduce the residue of insect sources. The shed with good airtightness and steam heating facilities or the shed vacant in summer can kill the residual insects and diseases in the shed by smothering it with high temperature.
Next, the necessary insect control devices should be added to the cultivation area to block outside insects from entering the cultivation area to reproduce and cause damage. In the area where mushrooms are produced in factory mode, a fresh air system should be installed in the mushroom room, and the air should be filtered into the mushroom room, and the filter should be cleaned and replaced regularly; the mushroom shed can adopt the physical prevention and control technology of "two nets, one light and one board", covering the outside of the shed with shade nets, insect nets and other protective facilities, hanging yellow boards and insect trapping lights inside the shed, and installing a buffer room or a screen at the entrance and exit of the shed. The entrance and exit of the buffer room or screen curtains, can play a role in blocking the external sources of insects.
Through the above preventive measures can effectively reduce most of the pest damage, for individual cases of pest damage has occurred, you can choose to have registered in edible mushrooms on the use of highly efficient and low-toxic insecticide for control.