Vertical Buried Cultivation Techniques of Maitake Off-Bag and Covered with Soil
1、Cultivation season arrangement
According to the habit that the growth temperature of substrate is 10℃～25℃ and the optimum temperature is 15℃～20℃, cultivation can be divided into two seasons: spring and autumn. Because the growth cycle of mycelium is 50~65 days, when arranging the cultivation season, the time of making bags to send out mushrooms should be 2 months earlier than the optimal time of mushroom production.
2. Cultivation material formula
① Wood chips 75%, wheat bran 20%, corn flour 5%.
② 55% wood chips, 25% cotton seed hulls, 20% wheat bran. Add 2% of total weight of quicklime to the recipe, pH 5.5~6.5.
3、Preparation and bagging
Weigh the culture material, mix wheat bran, corn flour, quicklime and other auxiliary materials and then sprinkle on the main material, add the right amount of water and mix well. Water content to hand squeeze the wet material can form a ball, loosen the hand that is appropriate. Use 17cm x 33cm x 0.004cm polypropylene bags. When filling the bag, the culture material should be pressed tightly with a hand fist to achieve a suitable tightness.
4、Sterilization and inoculation
Cultivation bags should be sterilized in time in the sterilization pot. If using autoclaving, steam pressure 1.2~1.3kg/cm2 is maintained for 1~1.5 hours; if using atmospheric sterilization, keep warm for 8~10 hours. After sterilization, cool down and put into inoculation room. Inoculate under aseptic operation and then put into culture room at 25℃.
5、Fermentation and management
Before putting the bag to disinfect the culture room, room temperature to maintain 25 ℃ ~ 26 ℃, air relative humidity to maintain 60% ~ 65%. Be flexible to adjust the temperature to strengthen ventilation to prevent humidity and control light. Fungus bags should be turned over 1~2 times a week to check, to be up and down, inside and outside, lateral to each other, find the miscellaneous bacteria timely treatment.
Use outdoor bag mulch standing buried cultivation method. Choose the site near the water source with the wind at 60 cm intervals, dig a border trench 50 cm wide and 25 cm deep. The border trench east-west direction, 3 meters long. Irrigate the ditch with water once, sprinkle thin layer of lime after water seepage, take off the outer layer of plastic of all the bags, and drain them vertically in the ditch. Leave 1~2cm gap between the front and back of the sticks, left and right, and the upper part of the sticks is 2cm lower than the ridge of the border. Fill the gap around the sticks with sun-dried sandy loam so that it is flush with the surface of the culture medium. Cover the surface of the sticks with 1.5 to 2 cm thick sun-dried sandy loam.
After covering, spray water evenly with sprayer, insist on the principle of small amount and many times. The soil material should not be crushed by hand and should not stick to the hands. In the soil surface bedding a layer of coarse sand 0.3 ~ 0.5 cm in diameter. Finally, put wooden sticks or bamboo poles on the bed and cover with plastic sheeting and grass curtain, leaving ventilation holes at both ends.
7. Management of mushroom emergence period
The key is moisture and ventilation management. The growth of Ashwagandha cotyledon needs to maintain 90% relative humidity of air, and the oxygen demand is large. When the temperature is 15℃～20℃, spray water 2~3 times a day and ventilate once in the morning, midday and evening. Ventilation holes are open for a long time. If the temperature is high, low humidity mulch layer becomes dry, should increase the amount of water spraying and spraying times, and often spray and sprinkle water in the space and walkway. Keep the air relative humidity 90%. Cultivation sites should have 200 to 500 lux light.
8、Harvesting and processing
Maitake substrates take 15 to 18 days from growing out of the soil to maturity under suitable growth conditions. When the outer edge of the fan-shaped cap without white growing end, the edge of thinning, the cap spreading, elongated, light gray-black color, and emit a strong fragrance can be harvested. Stop spraying water 1 day before harvesting. When picking, put your hand into the base of the cotyledon, hold the mushroom and gently rotate it to lift it upwards and hold it gently. Remove the culture material and soil from the base of the mushroom body with a knife and sell it immediately or process it further.