Intensive Cultivation Technology of Edible fungus
Using intensive technology to cultivate edible fungus such as oyster mushrooms and shiitake mushrooms can achieve high yield, high efficiency, high quality and low consumption.
1. Intensification of factories. There are many ways to cultivate edible fungi. In the cold winter, indoor heating cultivation is the most suitable. Indoor heating methods include ducted heating, coal stoves, etc. Considering cost and practicability, coal stoves are the most effective heating method. This device is suitable for relatively cold areas, and can achieve low cost, fast heating and convenient operation. Cultivation of edible fungi such as oyster mushrooms in the low temperature season has the advantages of light pest damage, low contamination rate of miscellaneous bacteria, good high and stable yield performance, large mushroom body cover, thick cover, short stalk, good color and high quality. And there are few vegetables in winter, it is easy to occupy the market and obtain ideal benefits. In the hot summer, underground or semi-underground cultivation is adopted. The temperature can generally be about 10 °C lower than the ground, the environment is cool, the pollution of bacteria is light, and the pests are less, which is very suitable for the cultivation and growth of edible fungi. The yield can reach more than 2 times that of ground cultivation, and the mushroom quality is good and the taste is high. Especially in the period of high temperature, mushrooms are difficult to cultivate, the yield is low, and the market is few. At this time, the benefits of this technology are very considerable.
2. Intensification of raw materials. Intensive production is mainly reflected in time saving, energy saving, low consumption and high efficiency, and the selection of raw materials is very important. For example, oyster mushroom is a kind of mushroom that is easy to cultivate among edible fungi. The cultivation method is simple and various. Among them, raw meal cultivation with low cost and easy operation is the first choice. The culture material includes raw material cultivation and clinker cultivation. Raw material cultivation means that the culture material has not been sterilized at high temperature. Generally, the method of composting and fermentation is adopted. It heats up naturally. Each time the temperature of the center of the pile reaches 60 °C, the material at the edge is turned to the middle, and the pile is continued to be stuffed to let it heat up naturally. After 3 times, it can be inoculated and bagged for cultivation. By controlling a certain carbon-nitrogen ratio and high temperature environmental conditions, the reproduction of miscellaneous bacteria can be effectively inhibited and the rapid growth of oyster mushrooms can be promoted.
3. Intensive bagging. For bagged culture material, some people think that the small bag has less material and the cycle is short, but the output is low and time-consuming; some people think that the big bag has more material and the output is high, but the cycle is long and the benefit is not high. Through the comparison of cultivation experiments, it was found that the size of the plastic bag is 18㎝×45㎝ (the length after loading is 30㎝), and the one with dry material 0.6㎏ is the best. In the bagging method, three layers of bacteria and two layers of material are implemented, that is, a layer of bacteria is laid on each end, and a layer of bacteria is sandwiched in the middle, which is more suitable for intensive production.
Fourth, management intensification. Different from conventional cultivation, intensive cultivation technology adopts the method of positioning fruiting. Oyster mushrooms grow from the oxygen-enhancing holes reserved during bagging, which can effectively prevent the mushroom buds from competing for nutrients and form a large number of shrinkage during the growth process, resulting in unnecessary loss of nutrients. At the same time, regular open-mouth fruiting, the mushroom bushes are too large, there are many dead mushrooms, and the quality of the mushrooms is poor. The positioning method of fruiting, the bag opening is not open, and the water evaporation of the mushroom bag is small, thus realizing intensive cultivation management.