The key link in the production management of shiitake mushroom
1. Fungi stick culture management
The best conditions for mushroom stick culture are temperature 22~24℃, humidity 60%~65%, good ventilation, low light or dark culture. During the cultivation of the fungus sticks, attention should be paid to the observation temperature. The temperature should be centered at 23 °C, and the fluctuations should not exceed 3 °C. Dark cultivation in the early stage and scattered light in the later stage are beneficial to the accumulation of mycelial nutrients and the fruiting effect is good.
1 to 6 days after inoculation is the germination and colonization period of shiitake mushroom mycelium. After 3 weeks of inoculation, with the increase of mycelial growth, the oxygen consumption increases, and the oxygen content in the stick has become a key factor for mycelial growth. For solid spawn inoculation, there are generally 4 inoculation holes, just take off the outer bag or tear the outer bag 8~10cm holes; If liquid spawn are inoculated, due to the small inoculation hole, the oxygen content in the stick is insufficient, and it is necessary to pierce the hole to increase the oxygen content. The key to this operation is that the depth and range of the puncture hole cannot exceed the growth range of the mycelium, and the hole can be pierced 1~2 times according to the growth of the mycelium; When the mycelium is covered with the whole stick, holes can be punctured all over the stick, and the number of punctures is 50-80 per rod, deep to the center of the bag. After puncturing, it is necessary to increase the ventilation volume and ventilation time to prevent the bacteria from burning after the temperature of the fungi sticks rises.
2. Color transfer management
The color change of the fungus stick is an important sign of the development and maturity of the mushroom mycelium. The color change temperature is 15~25℃, the optimum temperature is 18~22℃, and the humidity is 85%. Increase the ventilation and scattered light irradiation. Generally, the color change time is 10~15 days. The color change depth has a great relationship with the condition control and the variety. If the color change conditions are well controlled, the color of the fungus stick will be uniform and the thickness of the bacterial film will be consistent; otherwise, the color will be light or not. Uniformity, poor fruiting quality, temperature and light control should be paid attention to in the process of color change management.
The temperature control standard for oxygen evolution to promote color change is that it is more appropriate to control the temperature at 18~22°C during the entire color change period.When the temperature is below 20°C, the oxygenation and color change of the puncture hole will not cause high temperature burning bacteria;When the shed temperature is above 25℃, oxygen release should be stopped or cooling measures should be taken. When the temperature in the shed drops below 20°C, puncture holes to increase oxygen and change color, and open all windows to increase ventilation.
During the color changing period, the lighting in the booth needs to be adjusted to a relatively bright scattered light. In management, the inner shed sunshade net is removed, and the outer shed skylight shading net is opened to meet the light demand. In production, the light intensity is adjusted synchronously with ventilation management.
Judgment criteria for the color-changing maturity of the fungus stick: First, the surface of the fungus stick is elastic; Second, the tumor-like protrusions on the surface of the fungus stick are more than 70%; Third, 70% of the surface of the fungus stick has turned brown; Fourth, after the fungus stick is broken, the sawdust is beige, with the smell of shiitake mushrooms.
3 Budding management
Before bud activating, arrange the fruiting time of bud activating according to the weather and the time to market, and take off the bag before bud activating. The main measures for bud urging management are to control environmental conditions, such as increasing the stimulation of temperature difference and humidity difference between day and night, increasing the intensity of scattered light, increasing the ventilation, etc.
4 Fruiting management.
Strengthen temperature management and adjust fruiting time according to market demand, such as 8~16°C to form thick mushrooms, high carbon dioxide concentration to form long-legged mushrooms, etc.
The humidity of the mushroom shed is controlled at 85%~90%. When the mushroom cap is above 2cm, water can be directly sprayed on the mushroom stick and mushroom cap.
During the fruiting period, the scattered light intensity should be increased. The color of the fruiting body is related to the intensity of light. Black mushrooms are easily formed in weak light, and direct sunlight can be applied in winter.
In winter, ventilate 2~3 times a day for 40 minutes each time; in spring and autumn, when the temperature in the shed is higher than 20°C, it can be ventilated for 24 hours.
5 Harvest Management
Use a picking trolley to classify and pack the picked fresh mushrooms, handle them lightly, keep the fruiting bodies intact, and prevent mutual crushing and damage.
② Picking method
Pick big and keep small. Be careful not to leave the mushroom feet on the mushroom stick. If there is any residue, use a knife to remove it to avoid the growth of miscellaneous bacteria. Do not bring out the mushroom skin and do not hurt the surrounding small mushroom buds.
③ Harvest time
When the mushroom body reaches seven or eight maturity, the cap is not fully unfolded, and there are still curling edges. The mushroom can be harvested when the bacterial membrane begins to rupture. The mushrooms harvested at this time have bright color, strong fragrance, thick cap, and soft and tough flesh. If the harvest is not timely, the mushroom cap will be opened and the umbrella will become thinner, the mushroom stalk will be long, the quality will be reduced, and the commerciality will be reduced.
④Under normal circumstances, do not grading again after mixed harvesting, as grading after mixed harvesting will easily cause damage to the mushroom quality and affect the quality.
⑤ When the harvest is over, stop spraying water, ventilate the bacteria, and wait for the mycelium to recover. When the base of the previously harvested mushroom turns white, it can be transferred to the management of the next wave of mushroom budding and fruiting.