Light and Simplified Cultivation Techniques of Mushrooms under the Forest
In the process of forest tree growth, there are certain problems such as idle resources, large initial investment, long growth cycle, slow effect, and low utilization rate. In order to effectively make up for the shortcomings of slow forest effect,the development of edible fungi cultivation under forest has good social, economic and ecological benefits.
The under-forest environment has high humidity and high canopy closure, which is suitable for the growth and reproduction of edible fungi.The growth of edible fungi can make use of the idle land under the forest, and at the same time promote the good growth of trees. Therefore, the development of edible fungus cultivation under forest can not only achieve complementary growth space, but alsoMoreover, the utilization of light, air, water, temperature and other factors is complementary and mutually beneficial, cyclical, and coordinated development, reflecting the virtuous circle of "cultivating bacteria with forests and promoting forests with bacteria".
Also known as red matsutake mushrooms and wine red mushrooms, it is a rare edible fungus belonging to the mushroom family. Mushroom globulus mainly uses straw, straw, wheat straw and other agricultural wastes as the cultivation substrate, and has the characteristics of simple cultivation technology, easy popularization and high yield. In the main agricultural producing areas, the promotion of the cultivation of Mushrooms giganta can consume a large amount of crop straws, protect the rural ecological environment, and at the same time, it can improve the soil, increase the content of soil organic matter, and improve the comprehensive benefits of agriculture.
Key points of understory cultivation techniques
01 Woodland selection and finishing
①Choose: The woodland canopy density is between 0.3-0.6, the irrigation and drainage are convenient, the ventilation is good, the water source or well can be drilled, and the humus is rich;
②Treatment: Open drainage ditches around the woodland, with a depth of 10-15cm and a width of 20-40cm to facilitate drainage; clean up the branches and humus in the woodland to expose the ground; sprinkle quicklime on the ground, 50-100g per square, to eliminate germs and insect pests .
02 Raw material handling
The raw material is composed of corn stalks and quicklime, of which the proportion of straw is 99%, the quicklime is 1%, and water is added to the water content of 60-70%; directly mixed as a cultivation material, without fermentation treatment, that is, to realize raw meal cultivation and straw resource utilization.
03 Do border inoculation
The height of the conventional border bed is 20-30cm, the width is 0.8-1.3m, and the length is not limited. There are drainage ditches on both sides of the border bed, and it is connected with the drainage ditches around the woodland in the vertical direction of the border bed. In order to avoid the phenomenon of burning seedlings during the cultivation of raw materials, the method of three layers and two bacteria in the dwarf furrow bed can be used for furrow inoculation, and at the same time, it is matched with the temperature of the northern woodland. The method of sowing is to use solid bacterial seed layer sowing, the inoculation amount is 500-1000 grams per square, and the moisture content of the covering soil is 50-60%, so that the furrow bed is shaped like a turtle back, which is conducive to drainage, and finally covered with straw or pine needles for moisturizing.
04 Germination management
For bacteria management, pay attention to temperature and humidity control. The mycelium of Mushroom globulus can grow at 5-30℃, and the optimum temperature is 20-25℃. During the cultivation of raw materials, the fermentation temperature of the culture material rises. When the temperature is higher than 27°C, punch holes with a diameter of 2-5cm on the border, the depth is the height of the penetrating border, and the number is 1-3 holes per meter. The arrangement is in an "S" shape, and the quantity depends on the temperature. Humidity control generally adopts sprinkler irrigation to maintain the covering soil humidity between 50-60%, and has a cooling effect at the same time.
05 Fruiting management
Fruiting begins 40-50 days after sowing, the temperature is controlled at 10-25°C, and the humidity of the straw mulch is between 60-75%. In order to prevent the mushroom buds from being damaged by rainwater or prevent the culture material from rotting due to excessive rainwater, it should be covered with film for protection in time, and the film should be removed after the rainwater has passed.
Harvest when the fruiting body has not yet opened its umbrella. When harvesting, pay attention to avoid loosening the surrounding mushroom buds. After harvesting, the hole is filled with soil and the residual mushrooms are removed.