Industrial cultivation technology of Hericium erinaceus
Hericium erinaceus, also known as monkey mushroom, opposite-faced mushroom, etc., is named because of the plush fungus spines on the surface of its fruiting body, which looks like a golden monkey head from a distance.It is one of the top eight treasures in the "mountain and sea delicacies".The active ingredients of Hericium erinaceus include polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, Hericin, adenosine, laccase, Hericium ketone, amino acids, etc., which have the functions of improving human immunity, anti-tumor, anti-aging, and lowering blood lipids.It can be used to treat gastric diseases such as gastric ulcer and antral gastritis, and has a very important role in the regeneration and repair of gastric mucosal epithelium. In this paper, cultivation experiments were carried out for a variety of different fruiting modes, to explore the most suitable fruiting mode for industrial Hericium erinaceus cultivation, and to provide reference for Hericium erinaceus industrial cultivation enterprises.
1. Packaging process
1.1 Mixing and bagging process
According to the formula of "30% wood chips, 16% corncob, 22% cottonseed hulls, 15% bran, 10% rice bran, 5% corn flour, 2% gypsum",After adding the raw materials to the mixer, dry mix for 10 minutes, add water to adjust the water content to 65%,After adding water, continue stirring for 30 minutes to enter the bagging process. Use a vertical double punching automatic bagging machine for bagging. The specification of the plastic bag is 17.5cm in folded diameter and 20cm in height. After loading, the material surface is close to the plastic bag, and there are gaps that will lead to the formation of Hericium erinaceus primordium.
1.2 Sterilization and cooling process
Sterilize with a fully automatic high pressure steam sterilizer, maintain at 121 °C for 2 hours, completely remove cold air before sterilization, and remove condensed water regularly during the sterilization process to ensure that the bacteria in the sterilization bag are completely killed. After the sterilization is over, open a gap between the front and rear doors of the sterilizer, and use the positive pressure clean air in the cooling chamber to discharge the steam and heat in the sterilizer. After the steam is exhausted, the bacterial bag is pulled into the cooling room for forced cooling by the air conditioner.
1.3 Inoculation process
When the central temperature of the bacterial bag is lower than 24℃, it can be inoculated on the inoculation line. When inoculating, the aseptic operation procedures should be strictly followed, and the time for opening the plastic cover of the bacterial bag should be shortened as much as possible to avoid contamination by miscellaneous bacteria.
1.4 Cultivation management
After the inoculation is completed, the bacterial bag is moved into the culture room for cultivation. The temperature of the culture room is 23-25°C, the relative humidity is 65-70%, the CO2 concentration is less than 4 000 μL/L, and the room is protected from light. During the cultivation process, it is necessary to monitor the temperature of the center of the bacterial bag, the temperature between the bacterial bags and the indoor air temperature every day, and it is necessary to ensure that the central temperature of the bacterial bag does not exceed 26 °C.By monitoring the temperature between the bacterial cells at multiple locations, the uniformity of the environmental conditions in the culture room can be judged.If the difference is large, increase the internal circulation air volume and try to keep all the bacterial packs under more consistent culture conditions. During the culturing process, a forklift can be used to reverse the stacking operation to exchange the positions of the upper and lower culturing bed frames to improve the consistency of the bacteria package.
2. Fruiting process
2.1 Management of the first wave of mushrooms
After the mycelium is full, it enters the stage of fruiting management, and the fungus packs are transferred to the fruiting room for the first-flush mushroom management.
2.2 The second wave mushroom management
After the harvest of the first wave of mushrooms, the temperature is increased and the humidity is lowered to promote the recovery of the mycelium of the mushroom-picking pit.And increase the internal circulation air volume, control the CO2 concentration below 3000μL/L,Without light, after 2 days, the mycelium recovered completely and began to kink. At this time, the second-flush mushrooms were managed according to the first-flush mushroom management process.
The industrial cultivation of edible fungi has the characteristics of intensification and annualization, and is more secure than the traditional cultivation mode in terms of food safety. With the transformation and upgrading of my country's edible mushroom industry, varieties such as Agaricus bisporus, Flammulina velutipes, Crab-flavored Mushrooms, White Oyster Mushrooms, Seafood Mushrooms and King Oyster Mushrooms have basically achieved factory production, eliminating the inefficient traditional cultivation mode. Experiments show that the grid cultivation mode in the fruiting stage is easy to operate and has high fruiting uniformity, which is a fruiting mode that is very suitable for the factory cultivation of Hericium erinaceus.