Cultivation management of mushroom substitute material
The cultivation method of shiitake mushrooms is determined by the cultivation method. Substitute material cultivation is the mainstream of mushroom cultivation at present. The so-called surrogate cultivation, in simple terms, is to replace the substrate that the fungi must have in the original ecological state with raw materials suitable for the growth of fungi, and the raw materials that replace the original substrate provide carbon and nitrogen sources for the fungi. Obtain nutrients from raw materials to meet their own growth. This article mainly describes the method of cultivation with substitute material.
After several procedures of material preparation, stirring, bagging, disinfection, sterilization, and inoculation, the picking must go through three stages: the culturing period, the color changing period and the fruiting period. In different periods, the mushrooms have different growth characteristics. Therefore, different management methods must be adopted in different periods.
【1】Management of bacteria growing period
The management of mushroom culture period is mainly the growth management of mushroom mycelium. The temperature, humidity, light and oxygen in the breeding place are the four elements that affect the growth of mycelium, and the management content is the regulation of the four elements.
① temperature. About 10 days after inoculation, the temperature should be controlled at about 15 ℃. After the bacteria germinate and the mycelium is fed, the temperature should be controlled between 22 and 25°C, which can effectively prevent the infection of miscellaneous bacteria.
② Humidity. The relative humidity of the space should be kept at about 70% during the germinative period to break the high-humidity environment suitable for the growth of miscellaneous bacteria, so as to prevent the infection of miscellaneous bacteria.
③ light. Keep the place dark or low light to avoid light inhibiting mycelial growth.
④ Oxygen. The mycelium is oxygen-loving, and it is necessary to maintain sufficient oxygen in the place. About two weeks after inoculation, the method of tying the hi-hole in the fungus bag to increase the oxygen content in the bag can ensure the oxygen supply of the mycelium.
Under the condition that these four elements are well controlled, the mycelium can be covered with the fungus bag after about 30 days of growth. At this time, the bag should be removed from the bag. After unpacking, the mycelium gradually began to change color and entered the color-changing period.
【2】Conversion period management
The color change refers to the completion of physiological maturity when the mycelium is covered with the fungus bag, and the surface of the white mycelium forms a layer of brown biofilm under certain conditions. Planting difference. The depth of the color change and the thickness of the bacterial film have an important impact on the formation and development of the primordium, and the yield and quality of the mushroom. Therefore, the color-changing period is an important period for the growth of shiitake mushrooms.
The color change period generally lasts for about 15 days after taking off the bag. During this period, the following management should be done.
① temperature. Adjust the temperature between 15 and 26 ℃ to increase the temperature difference and stimulate the rapid discoloration of the hyphae. But the highest can not exceed 28 ℃, the lowest can not be lower than 15 degrees. It is not easy to change color beyond.
② Humidity. Keep at 85 to 90%. If the humidity is too low, if the mycelium surface is dry, the color change will stop immediately.
③ light. Increase the light of the place, the stronger the light, the faster the color change speed, but the diffuse light irradiation state is required, and the strong light cannot be directly illuminated. The strong light will inhibit the color change speed of the mycelium.
④ Oxygen. It is necessary to keep the air in the place fresh, the oxygen is sufficient, and the ventilation should be increased, but pay attention to the ventilation intensity. When the color-changing period of the fungus sticks is completed, the cultivation of shiitake mushrooms begins to enter the fruiting period.
【3】Management during fruiting period
The management content of shiitake mushrooms during the fruiting period is the same as the above-mentioned bacteria-culturing period and color-changing period, but the indicators that affect the growth of shiitake mushrooms are different.
① temperature. After the color change period and entering the early stage of fruiting, it is also necessary to increase the temperature difference to stimulate buds at this time. The temperature can be maintained between 10 and 23 °C, and the temperature difference between day and night is about 10 °C. In the growth stage of the fruiting body after the mushroom buds are formed, the temperature is most suitable between 15 and 22 degrees.
② Humidity. Just keep it around 85-90%.
③ light. The location is in a state of scattered light.
④ Oxygen. Appropriately increase the ventilation volume to maintain sufficient oxygen. At this time, the fruiting body consumes more oxygen for respiration.
It takes about a week from budding to maturity of fruiting bodies before picking. During this period, if the mushroom buds are too dense, it is necessary to sparse the buds. After picking, the place should be low temperature and low humidity, and enter the second tide to prepare for fruiting.
The cultivation and management of shiitake mushrooms is a systematic process. The nodes are clear, but there are many details. We must be diligent in observation and patient management in order to obtain good harvests and good economic benefits.