Key techniques for annual cultivation of straw mushroom and bisporus mushroom in factory rotation

The industrialized annual cultivation of straw mushrooms often suffers heavy losses due to serious diseases and insect pests. Based on the summary of practice, the key technology of rotation cultivation of straw mushrooms and bisporus mushrooms in the existing factoryized mushroom houses is put forward. The different cultivation temperature requirements of straw mushrooms and bisporus mushrooms are used. Low temperature alternately inhibits the occurrence of pests and diseases, which not only realizes the green prevention and control of pests and diseases in the industrial cultivation of grass rot fungi, but also realizes the efficient recycling of the cultivation substrate. The existing mushroom room facilities of Agaricus bisporus are used to carry out research on the cultivation of straw mushrooms and Agaricus bisporus in rotation, so as to improve the economic benefits of industrial cultivation. The key technical points are summarized as follows.

1. Mushroom room facilities and sterilization treatment

The mushroom house should have the characteristics of temperature control, moisture retention, and good ventilation. The materials used should be non-toxic, harmless, and non-volatile, and should be kept clean and hygienic. The cultivation frame should not be too high or too wide. After the previous mushrooms are harvested, the waste materials should be cleaned up in time to clean up the mushrooming room. Before feeding, sterilize the mushroom house and mechanical equipment. After the floor and bed frame of the mushroom room are rinsed with clean water, they can be disinfected by spraying with concentrated lime water or Bordeaux liquid, or sprayed with sodium hypochlorite solution for sterilization, and then steaming into the mushroom room, turning on the internal circulation system, and raising the temperature to over 70℃. Bacteria can be used for 10h.

2. Layered bed plant

A mushroom bed with a width of 1.2m, a length of 18m, and a height of 6 layers can be used in the mushroom room. The first layer is 20cm from the ground, and the spacing between each layer is 55cm. Each room has 4 rows of mushroom beds.

3. Stubble connection

It can be arranged flexibly according to the market situation and the occurrence of diseases and insect pests. Generally, every two crops of straw mushrooms is transformed into one crop of bisporus mushrooms. In order to avoid the peak of the large number of conventional cultivation of straw mushrooms in the high temperature season, and to improve the working environment, it is possible to cultivate straw mushrooms in spring and autumn, and cultivate bisporus mushrooms in winter and summer, that is, to cultivate two straw mushrooms in March to May. 6 One crop of Agaricus bisporus is cultivated in August, two crops of Straw mushrooms are cultivated from September to November, and one crop of Agaricus bisporus is cultivated from December to February of the following year.

4. The key technology of straw mushroom cultivation

4.1 Strain selection

Use strains that are suitable for the cultivation of bacterial residues, have fast fruiting, impurity resistance, strong stress resistance, high quality, and high yield, such as 1295, VSD-1.

4.2 Culture material treatment and formula

Fully soak the fresh slag of the industrial cultivation of Pleurotus eryngii and Flammulina velutipes for 2 to 3 days to make the culture material absorb water evenly and loosely, add lime and adjust the water content to 70%. The culture material is transported to the bed frame of the mushroom house, and the spread is in a turtle-back shape with a thickness of 22cm in the middle and 15-20cm in the edge. Close the doors and windows of the mushroom room, heat the culture material to 40~50℃ naturally, increase the temperature of the material to 70℃, keep the temperature of the mushroom room at 65~66℃ for 24h, stop heating, and make the material within 4~5d The temperature slowly dropped to 40°C.

Culture material formula: Pleurotus eryngii mushroom residue 60%, Flammulina velutipes residue 35%, lime 3%, calcium carbonate 1%, cow dung 1%.

4.3 Seeding

Ventilate the temperature, reduce the temperature of the culture material to 35°C, spray water on the surface of the culture material, and sow when the water content is adjusted to 70%. The seeding method is the surface of the wheat seed, and the seeding amount is 500 g/㎡.

4.4 Bacteria

Under dark conditions, the temperature of the culture material is controlled at 33°C, and the mass concentration of CO2 is controlled below 1400mg/kg by ventilation. After 6 days of cultivation, the mycelium is basically long permeable the bed.

4.5 Fruiting

After the material bed is full of mycelium, spray water with a volume of 1kg/㎡, and at the same time strengthen ventilation and give 500lx scattered light; the material temperature is maintained at 32℃, the air relative humidity is 90%, and the CO₂ concentration is less than 1500mg/kg. After the mushroom buds grow to the size of peanuts, spray water with a spray volume of 0.2kg/㎡.

5. Cultivation technology of Agaricus bisporus

5.1 Strain selection

Strain selection such as 2796 and 828.

5.2 Culture material treatment and formula

The bacteria residue and dry cow dung are respectively pre-wet and mixed according to 3:1, and water is added to a water content of 62% to 65%, and the mixture is evenly mixed to build a pile for fermentation. Turn the pile every 5-6d, and the required auxiliary materials are mixed in batches when turning the pile. After turning the pile 3 times, you can enter the mushroom house to spread the material. The culture material is in the shape of a turtle-back, 30cm thick in the middle and 15-20cm thick at the edge. After spreading the material, immediately close the doors and windows, heat and increase the temperature, after the temperature rises to 58~60℃, keep it for 24h, then ventilate and cool down, gradually reduce the material temperature to 45~52℃ within 12h, keep it for 4~5d, wait for the material temperature Seed when it drops below 28°C.

Culture material formula: Pleurotus eryngii mushroom residue 50%, Flammulina velutipes residue 15%, straw mushroom residue 12%, cow dung 20%, superphosphate 1%, lime powder 1%, light calcium carbonate 1%.

5.3 Seeding and germination management

Spread 500g/m2 wheat seeds on the surface of the material bed, grab the material surface lightly, let the bacteria fall into the material, and then close the doors and windows to grow bacteria, keep the relative humidity of the air at 70% to 75%, and the temperature at 28°C. There is no ventilation for the first 3 days to promote the germination of hyphae. After that, ventilation should be done as much as possible to promote the spread of hyphae in the material.

5.4 Fruiting management

When the mycelium of the covering soil climbs up to the surface of the covering soil for about 10 days, use the scratching machine to scratch the bacteria to make the hyphae and the covering soil fully mix and reduce the phenomenon of primordial clustering. When the mycelium is reconnected, lightly spray the mushroom water once, the water consumption is 1L/㎡, the room temperature drops to 18~19℃, the material temperature is 21~22℃, the relative humidity of the air is around 90%, keep it for 3 days, pay attention to the cooling process Need to be completed within 36h.

When the mushroom buds grow to the size of soybeans, spray mushroom water with a spray volume of 2 to 3L/㎡, the room temperature is kept at 16℃, and the relative humidity of the air is 85%. After the first tidal mushroom is harvested, immediately clean up the bed surface, remove old mushrooms, small mushrooms, dead mushrooms, mushroom feet, etc., fill the soil in time, keep the bed flat, spray water 2L/㎡, and 4 before harvesting the second tidal mushroom ~5d spray water again. Generally only 3 tidal mushrooms are picked.

Straw mushrooms and Agaricus bisporus can be used to rotate crops. The long-term medium and low temperature during the cultivation period of Agaricus bisporus can be used to completely kill the bacteria and pests suitable for high temperature growth. High temperature kills verrucosporium, verticillium and other pathogenic bacteria and pests in the production of Agaricus bisporus, realizing green ecological prevention and control of pests and diseases. During the crop rotation, no pests and diseases occurred in Agaricus bisporus, no Coprinus sp. damage occurred during the first wave of Straw mushrooms, and a small amount of Coprinus sp. appeared in the second wave.

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