During the growth and development of edible fungi, the environmental factors that affect it include temperature, moisture, humidity
, air composition, light, pH, and biological factors. Today, I would like to share with you how to control the temperature and pH of high-efficiency cultivation of edible fungi.
Suitable temperature is the key factor for the successful cultivation of edible fungi
The growth and development of edible fungi need to be carried out at a certain temperature, because all life activities must be completed under a series of complex enzymatic chemical reactions, and the catalysis of enzymes is closely related to temperature regulation. Of course, in different growth stages, the temperature requirements of edible fungi are not exactly the same.
1. What are the temperature requirements for spore germination?
The suitable temperature for germination of most edible fungi spores is generally controlled between 20~30℃, and the most suitable temperature should be around 25℃. Once the temperature is too high, it is easy to cause the death of the spores, but if the temperature is too low, it usually affects the germination of the spores. For example, the suitable temperature for bisporus mushroom should be around 18~25℃, but the temperature of shiitake mushroom should be kept at 22~26℃. The temperature of straw mushroom should be higher, generally reaching 35~39℃. The suitable temperature for the germination of black fungus spores is 22~32℃, while the spore germination temperature of Flammulina velutipes should be controlled between 15~24℃, and the temperature of Pleurotus ostreatus should be kept between 24~28℃.
2. What are the temperature requirements for mycelial growth?
Under normal circumstances, in most edible fungi mycelium growth period, the most suitable temperature is similar to the spore germination temperature. Generally, it should be kept between 20~30℃, preferably at 25℃. But broadly speaking, the minimum temperature for mycelial growth is generally not lower than 2°C, and the maximum temperature should not exceed 39°C. Of course, in general, when mycelium grows, its tolerance to low temperature is much stronger than its tolerance to high temperature. According to scientific experiments, when the temperature is at 5℃, shiitake mushrooms can grow 6.4mm per day, when it reaches 10℃, it can grow about 13mm. When the temperature reaches 25℃, it is the most suitable growth temperature, which can reach 85.5mm. , But if it exceeds 30°C, the daily growth length of shiitake mushroom hyphae is only 41.5 mm. Moreover, the hyphae of shiitake mushrooms generally die in about 4 hours at a high temperature of 40°C. If they reach a high temperature of 45°C or higher, they generally die within 30-40 minutes. In addition, the growth temperature range of edible fungus hyphae should be controlled between 6~33℃, the most suitable temperature is 24℃, and the growth temperature range of straw mushroom hyphae should be kept between 12~45℃, the most suitable temperature should be Control at 35°C.
3. What are the temperature requirements for fruit body growth?
When the fruit body differentiates, the temperature is relatively low. For most edible fungi, this is actually the case, and it is lower than the temperature required for the growth of its mycelium. For example, the most suitable temperature for the growth of shiitake mushroom hyphae is 25°C, but the most suitable temperature for fruit body differentiation is only about 15°C, and the differentiation will gradually stop when it reaches above 20°C. But when the fruit body develops, the temperature is higher than the temperature during differentiation. The differentiation temperature of Straw mushroom fruit body is generally controlled at 7~21℃, but the temperature of fruit body development should be kept at about 30~31℃. The differentiation temperature of Pleurotus ostreatus fruit body is 15~27℃, while the fruit body development temperature is 13~17℃. The differentiation temperature of Flammulina velutipes fruit body is generally 12~24℃, and the temperature of fruit body development is generally about 8~14℃.
Some fruit bodies not only require a low temperature during the formation period, but also have a certain temperature difference to effectively stimulate the formation of fruit bodies. This is commonly referred to as the temperature-changing and firm edible fungi, such as shiitake mushrooms, oyster mushrooms, etc., while enoki and black Fungus, etc. are called constant temperature and strong type.