High Yield Cultivation Of Morel

Morel is a precious and precious mushroom in the world. It is a high-grade nutritional
supplement. It contains rich protein, carbohydrates, multivitamins and more than 20
kinds of amino acids, especially organic strontium. It has important value in medicine.
Due to its full-featured function, unique fragrance and remarkable therapeutic diet, it is
currently sold at a high price in the country. It is very tight in Western European countries,
with higher prices and higher demand.
In the past,morchella could only be harvested in the wild with low yield and difficulty.
More than 100 years ago, Britain, the United States and France and other countries
began to study the artificial cultivation of morchella but did not grow a mushroom body. In
the 1960s, the use of mycelium fermentation to make food and medicine began .For
more than 30 years,it has remained in the stage of mycelial production,and has not made
a complete breakthrough in the cultivation of mushroom. With the development of edible
wormwood, many colleges and universities and research institutes in China have carried
out research and exploration. Through long-term and unremitting efforts, now we have
basically mastered the cultivation techniques of bottle planting, box planting, pot planting,
bag planting and indoor and outdoor large beds. So that the cultivation of morchella from
mystery to simple feasible.
Morchella is classified as a sub-phylum of cystobacteria. It is low temperature type
fungus,hypha growth temperature for 8 to 25℃,fruiting body temperature of 12-22 ℃,
medium humidity of 60% to 60%,the mushroom and the growth of air humidity was 54%
~ 54%,turns the soil humidity 20%;Morchella is also a kind of aerobic fungus, whose
growth and development require fresh air. The pH value of mycelium growth was 5-8,of
which 7 was preferred. Mycelium growth does not need light,the growth of fruiting body
needs four Yang six Yin or three Yang seven Yin.
1.Planting season
Morchella is a kind of cryogenic fungus, generally the temperature drops below
20cC, and can be cultivated above 8t. Generally, November is the best cultivated period
in most areas of China.
2 .Cultivation methods
2.1The cultivation materials and formulations used for the cultivation of morchella
are quite extensive,such as straw,corn cob,cottonseed shell, wood shavings and various
crop straws.Cite a few case:
①Agricultural straw 75%, bran 2, p and gypsum 1%, lime 0.5%, 3%
②Plant shavings 75%, bran 2 fan, p fertilizer and gypsum 1% each, rot soil 3%
③Camphor wood shavings 60%, corn cob or stalk 20%, rice bran 15%, gypsum 2%,
phosphate 1%, rot soil 2%;
④At 75% of cottonseed husk, 20% of bran, 1% of gypsum and 1% of lime, 3% of
earth;
⑤Maize cob 80%, rice bran 15%, gypsum lime, phosphate fertilizer 1%, soil 2%;
⑥Bagasse and broadleaf leaves 95%, gypsum, lime and phosphate 1% each, soil
3%
The above raw materials should be crushed into chips, tree branches should be
broken into pieces or blocks, corn cores should be crushed into the size of fingers. Bran,
rice bran should be fresh without mildew, phosphate fertilizer is selected for quick effect
calcium superphosphate, gypsum is selected for white bright.The wood shavings used to
cultivate morchella are best with camphor. The soil with poplar or paulownia root is better,
vegetable garden soil, should have high humus content.
2.2The cultivation method of morchella morchella can adopt a variety of cultivation
methods,and the large-scale production can select bag cultivation and field bed
cultivation cultivation, which are introduced separately.
2.2-1 Bag cultivation with 17 cm x33 cm high density polyethylene or polypropylene,
each containing 500-600 grams of dry material, mixing materials will be the day before
smashed sieving, melt with water, on the second day take its slag supernatant,gypsum,
lime and bran and rice bran blender before they add to the main ingredient, soil can be
sprinkled on the water mixed with phosphate supernatant water add to the material,mix
well。 Bag and sterilize the mixture after mixing.6-8 h. Pressure 1.5 kg/m '1 hour, remove
cooling below 22 ℃ under aseptic conditions access strains, buy 18;-22 ℃ darkroom
bacteria, generally about 30 days hypha can be full of bags. Continue to culture for
another 5-6 days, increase the amount of mycelium in the substrate,and then take off the
bag and cover the mushroom.
2.2-2 Indoor bed planting sheep belly Yin can build a five-layer bed frame with the
same specifications as general edible fungus bed frame. Before cultivation, indoor
disinfection is first carried out. After disinfection, a thin film is placed on the bed frame.
The film is covered with rot planting soil about 3cm thick. The soil should be pressed
before use
100 kilograms is equal to 0 in 5 milliliters of formaldehyde.5 percent dichlorvos
spraying.After spraying the medicine, the cover film should be sealed for 24 hours (the
soil should be dried before disinfection), the volatile smell should be hung out, and the
water should be moistened to form a mass in your hand, which will be dispersed when
you touch it. After the bacteria that have reached physiological maturity is planted and
removed, it is placed flat on the bed frame. The distance between the bag and the bag is
about 1cm.
The tumbler bed can hold 40 fungus bags, and the whole bed is arranged with
3-5cm thick rot soil. Cover the soil with 2 cm thick broadleaf tree leaves.
2.2-3 Field bed cultivation
①Selection of venue.According to the character such as morbid,dark,low
temperature, the ground had better choose below shade of the tree, bamboo forest,
grape is planted or under artificial shade shed, have flower beautiful sunshine,
environment sanitation, if have green and lawn best, soil is wet namely the soil that does
not accumulate water is better, around should have drain ditch to prevent rain water.
②Construction and disinfection of open bed.Before cultivation, the soil under the
shade shed will be dug to be 30-60 cm deep, 100 cm wide, and the furrow without limit,
and 10% clear limestone water will be poured on the bottom of the furrow, and
1:20000-pyrethrum will be sprayed to prevent disease and insect damage.Lay out the
materials and sow the seeds.Morchella can be cultivated with cooked or raw
materials.Clinker is you can choose any one of the above formula, according to the
proportion of water and mix well, then packed in woven bag, atmospheric pressure
sterilization 8-12 hours, spread out to strip the bed, the first layer of 4 ~ 7 cm thick, the
material temperature down to 22 ℃, to sow, strains of 40% to 50% to cover the material,
the second shop is 8 to 10 cm, sprinkle a layer of strains, the third layer spread 5 ~ 7 cm
material, dried shrimp 'YongZhongLiang 2-4 bottles, after the seeding material surface
humus soil 3-5 cm, then cover on the surface of the earth 2 cm thick, wide leaf, bamboo
sliver hog on the strip, cover film, moisture and rain.To increase the temperature, you can
build a plastic arch.
The cultivation of raw materials is to mix all kinds of raw materials and directly
spread them on the bed.
Morchella bag can be planted in the indoor mushroom, or the film can be removed
after the full bag of mycelium, the bed in the next field is laid flat on the bed, the space
between the bag and the bag is 1 cm, and filled with rot planting soil, the surface
covering method is the same as indoor bed planting, only the bed under the bed is not
pad film.
3 .Cultivation and management of morchella.
3.1 Hair fungus management morchella rear bag seeding darkroom bacteria, the
temperature control in 18 ~ 22 ℃.Usually around 30 days mycelium can be full of
bags.When the mycelium is full of bags, continue to culture for 5-6 days, so that the
amount of mycelium in the base increases, and then take off the bag and cover the soil to
produce the mushroom.Wild bed cultivation mainly to catch the season, the use of
natural temperature, then through artificial regulation between 3-18 ℃, with 8 ~ 12 cc is
the best.After planting in the bed, it will be ventilated for 1 hour every 10 days. After that,
it will be managed to keep the soil moist and dry without cracking. Cattle should be
protected from trampling.But do not let the liquid medicine into the material.
3.2 The mushroom can be produced in normal temperature for about a month.It was
not until mid-march of the following year, when the temperature rose to 12-18cc, that the
fungus began to take place in the open beds.The period from cultivation to fruiting is
mainly to keep the bed surface moist.The specific management is often to cover the
surface with sprayers on the leaves on water, only less and more frequently, must not
make redundant water shunting into the material.When a part of molecular entity is
unearthed, part of the leaves should be removed and a small amount of water should be
sprayed. If covered, both ends should be raised to keep the air fresh and the humidity
should be raised to 54-81%. After a few days, the morchella could grow in large
quantity.Morchella occurs between March 20, solstice and April 20, with a temperature of
12-18'E as its growth peak.
Generally, the harvested morchella of morchella can be mature within 5 to 7 days.
The standard of maturity is no matter the size, which is mainly distinguished from the
color. First, it changes from dark gray to light gray or brown yellow.
After seeding morchella, it can harvest a stubble mushroom in the baged year.
When in the field seedling planted,it can grow out of the bodyafter 3-4 months. It takes
80-90 days at the soonest and 4-5 months at the slowest
When the hyphae of morchella reach physiological maturity,it forms a zone of
bacteria,and then concentrates the white villi to form the sclerotia. The crystal beads
appear on the sclerotia,and the primordium bulge is formed in the middle of the sclerotia.
It starts look like small canola seeds,then rises and grows.The fruiting body contour can
be identified when the wheat is large,and the characteristic of the stalk and cap can be
seen. This should be carefully managed to prevent direct sun exposure as well as high
winds,droughts,heavy rain,frost and snow.By careful management,morchella grows,
some solitary,some clumpy,and some joined together. The average length of sea rice can
be 50-80, the highest yield of dry goods 250 grams, when mature if not timely harvest,
will be quickly worm-rot, and leave the body drive shell.
Morchella growth and maturity are uneven and must be harvested in batches.
Knead the wormwood handle with your hand when harvesting, shake it to the left and
right, and remove the mud feet by the way. Place in the basket according to the size
classification. Do not damage the mushroom buds around when harvesting.Harvest
every day for 1 month before and after harvest.
After the processing of morchella harvested should be dried or dried in time,
otherwise the bacteria maggot, nematodes will occur.Generally, morchella can be dried
in 2 days. If it can be dried in a dryer for an hour, it can be served in an airtight plastic
bag.Do not break the bacterial cap during drying and bagging. Keep it intact
The growth condition of morchella is very high, especially the requirement of
temperature and humidity is very strict, which is difficult to do outside.The use of artificial
temperature control in the room is the key to high yield.Indoor cultivation in the
temperature control in 18 to 22 ℃, humidity control in 80-85% more appropriate.It's
usually grown in jars or plastic bags, with the mycelium growing and then opening.
The mouth of bottle or bag, increase temperature, control good humidity, after a
period of time of cultivation, can appear fruit entity.Avoid outdoor exposure to the natural
effects of sun, wind, drought, rain, insect pests, miscellaneous bacteria and failure.
Morchella is also known as delicious morchella, also known as morchella,
tricholoma, tricholoma tricholoma, sheep stomach, Yang finches, mushroom and so on.It
is a kind of rare edible and medicinal fungus recognized in the world. It is recognized as a
delicious edible fungus next to truffles in Europe. However, it has not been cultivated in a
large number of commercial artificial cultivation.
Morchella not only has unique flavor and nutrition, but also contains a variety of
vitamins and amino acids. It is rich in organic germanium and has functions of nourishing
the kidney, invigorating the brain and invigorating the brain.Main treatment of renal loss,
impotence, libido cold, dizziness and insomnia, gastrointestinal inflammation, spleen and
stomach weakness, indigestion, poor diet has a good therapeutic effect;At the same time,
it can also prevent cancer, cancer and cold, and enhance the effect of human immunity,
which is of great value in medicine.Due to its complete functions and remarkable food
effect, it is sold very tightly in the international market. At present, the domestic purchase
price has been stable at 400 to 500 yuan per kg, and the international price is more
expensive.As the wild resources are very limited, the artificial cultivation and
development and utilization of morchella have a broad market prospect.
Morchella
The length is 3-5cm, the thickness is 11-20mm, the upper is flat and the base is
slightly fluted.Follicles (210-250) x (15-20). Microns.A single row arrangement of spores,
(22-26) downward through m x (12-14)
Edelweiss
The cap is long,nearly conical,pointed or slightly pointed at the tip, 5cm long and
2.5cm in diameter.Pit more rectangular, light brown, ridge color is relatively shallow, more
vertical arrangement, connected by transverse veins.Handle white. The diameter of 6cm
is approximately 2/3 of the base of the bacteria cap. The upper part is flat and the lower
part has irregular grooves.(1). (2).The top of the side wire is expanded, with a diameter of
9 to 12 PI m.
Morchell
The morchella capillaris with thick stalk is nearly conical, about 7cm high and 5cm
wide.Pit nearly round, large and shallow, pale yellow, ribbed thin, irregular
interwoven.Stem stout, light yellow, about 10cm long, base thick 5cm, slightly fluted,
tapering up.The ascocyte is cylindrical with spore sections at 150 x 18 m.Eight spores,
single row arrangement, oval, colorless, (22-25) a displacement m x (15-17) a
displacement m.Lateral filaments colorless, top expanded.
Small morchella
The small morchella is conical,17-33mm high and 8-15mm wide.Pits tend to be
long and light brown.The ridges are usually arranged longitudinally, interwoven irregularly,
and the color is relatively shallow.Stem length 15-25mm, thick 5-8mm, white or light
yellow, base often inflated, with grooves.The asci are nearly cylindrical, with spore
sections about 100 x 16.The top of the lateral filament expands.
Habitat distribution
The ecological environment:
1. Born in the broad-leaved forest at an altitude of 800-1000m, on the ground and in
the open forest margin.
2. Born on the ground in yunshan forest.
3. In broad-leaved forests and mixed forests, in open areas of forest margins and in
bushes in protective forests.
4. On the forest margin of mixed forests.
Born on the ground in a sparse forest.
Distribution of resources: 1. Distribution in jilin, hebei, shanxi, shaanxi, gansu,
qinghai, xinjiang, jiangsu, sichuan, yunnan, etc.
2. Distributed in Inner Mongolia, shanxi, qinghai, sichuan, yunnan, Tibet, etc.
3. Distributed in hebei, shanxi, gansu, xinjiang, jiangsu, hunan, yunnan and other
places.
4. It is distributed in heilongjiang, shanxi, xinjiang and other places.
Distribution in shanxi, shaanxi, ningxia, xinjiang, sichuan and other places.
Culture
The hyphae of morcharia can be grown in various fungal cultures.Mycelium growth
period, April and 5
Month average temperature of 10 or 11 ℃ respectively and 13-14 ℃, and fruiting
body stage occurred in mid-april to mid-may, the average temperature of 12 ℃.When the
fruiting body grows, air relative humidity in the forest is about 80%, and soil water content
is generally 40-50%.The optimum Ph of morchella growth is slightly higher than that of
general fungi.Soil pH (pH) 7-7.9.
The culture technique generally adopts two methods: inoculation of fungus soil and
inoculation of fruiting body.Inoculation of the soil: from late April to early may, the soil
mass of 10cm square and about 7cm thick was dug out on the good growing plot of
morchella, and transplanted to the hole which was unfortunately similar to the soil, and
then covered with 30cm square plastic film.Enter the plum rain season to remove the
mulch.Seed body inoculation: take the fruit body cut into 4 pieces, buried in the ideal
location.When transplanting, the ascocele dish is downward, the soil is spread all around
and a small part is left to expose the ground.Cover with a few leaves, then cover with a
30cm square plastic film.Seed body inoculation is easy to survive in autumn.
Properties
Identification:
1. Ovoid or ovoid, obtusely rounded at the top, 4-8cm long, 3-6cm in diameter, with
most small pits on the surface, and the appearance is similar to that of tripe.The small pit
is irregular or circular, brown, 4-12mm in diameter, with yellowish brown ridges.The stalk
is nearly cylindrical, 5.5-8cm long, 2-4cm in diameter, white, slightly swollen at base,
some with irregular grooves and hollow.It's light and crispy.Weak gas, mild taste, slightly
sour.
2. Trichomonas petiolatum was narrowly conical with slightly pointed tip, 1-4cm long
and about 2.5cm in diameter;The small pits are mostly rectangular, 5-10mm long, 2-5mm
in diameter, light brown, with darker ridges.The stalk is nearly cylindrical and hollow.It's
light and crispy.The air is weak and the taste is weak.
3.Trichomes serosa is conical, pointed or more pointed, about 4cm long and 2cm in
diameter.Small pit is kind of rectangle more, ecru, rep.The stalk is yellowish white, with
irregular grooves and hollow in the lower part.Light and fragile.Slight air, light taste
4. The cap of morchella vulgaris with thick stalk is conical, with a length of about
6cm and a diameter of about 4cm;Small pits are round, large and shallow, pale yellow,
with thin ridges.The stalk is stout, about 10cm long, tapering in upper part, swollen at
base, about 5cm in diameter.Near-white, longitudinally wrinkled, warped and streaked,
hollow.It's light and crisp.The air is weak and the taste is weak.
5. Trichomonas pumila is conical, 1.7-3.3cm long and 1-1.5cm in diameter.Small pit
is kind of rectangle more, ecru, rep.The stalk is 1.5-2.5cm long, 5-8mm in diameter,
swollen at the base, slightly grooved and hollow.Almost white or yellowish.It's light and
crispy.The air is weak and the taste is weak.
Bionic cultivation techniques for morchella edulis
Morchella commonly known as morchella (yunnan), baogu (sichuan), ascomycetes
(shaanxi), and wolfsbane (gansu), belong to ascomycotina, discomycetes, discomycetes,
family morchoniaceae, genus morchella.Due to its bacteria cap is a network full of
depression and ridges, the shape of the sheep belly is named.Since the late 19th century,
the broad masses of fans of morchella morchella within the genus morchella and spire
morchella strains of a few kinds of physiological, biochemical, such as the material
formula formula, cultivation and cultivation management was carried out extensive
research and has made great progress, and there are reports that have been fully
implemented morchella artificial cultivation, but at present, morchella artificial cultivation
of 1982 inventions such as the power is the only successful morchella artificial cultivation
method.The successful cultivation of morchella has been frequently reported in China
since the 1980s. However, artificial cultivation according to the method described by
them does not necessarily result in fruiting bodies.To spire of morchella resources
sustainable use, ecological protection, and meet market demand at home and abroad, in
yunnan province academy of agricultural sciences mountain economic plants in the
nature conservancy, the department of science and technology bureau of lijiang city of
yunnan province project under the funding of morchella bionic cultivation key technology
research, in order to promote the morchella cultivation achieved rapid development and
the China pavilion morchella bionic cultivation can sustainable development.
Biological characteristics of morchella
1. Eutrophic morpha is a saprophytic and symbiotic fungus with strong ability to
decompose cellulose and lignin in nature.It can use wood chips, cottonseed shells, corn
cobs and other agricultural and forestry wastes as the main raw materials, and bran and
corn flour as the auxiliary materials to make the bacteria needed for bionic cultivation of
morchella edulis.
2. Temperature peaked morchella fungi belonged to low temperature type, but its
mycelium in 5-30 ℃ temperature can grow, the optimum temperature for 18 to 22 ℃,
35 ℃ when stop growing, the dormant: under 5 ℃ temperature for the differentiation of
ascoma 4-11 ℃, higher than 13 ℃ ascoma differentiation very hard, but ascoma were
grow, at the time of 6 to 25 ℃ below 8 ℃ environment, long ascoma quality is good,
temperature 18 ℃ higher than that of poor quality.Therefore, the appropriate temperature
is one of the important factors influencing the growth,development and quality of
morchella edulis.
3. Water and water are the key factors of successful bionic cultivation of morchella
vulgaris. The fruit differentiation of ascomycetes requires approximately saturated water
to stimulate the primordium differentiation, but the growth and development of
ascomycetes requires 60-70% water.Therefore, how to control the moisture content of
soil matrix is the key point of field management. Generally, it is advisable to control the
moisture content of soil at about 65% and the relative humidity of air at 80-90%.When
soil moisture and air humidity are too high, the fungus stalk is perishable.When soil
moisture content and air humidity are too low, the top of morchella vulgaris is prone to
deformity or stop growing, which affects the yield and quality of morchella vulgaris.
4. Air spirochaete is an aerobic fungus whose mycelium growth stage and
ascomycete formation stage require fresh air.Good ventilation is conducive to the healthy
growth of mycelia and the differentiation and growth of the ascocarp.If ventilation
condition, poor, easy to occur small stem cap deformation mushroom, affect quality,
reduce the value of goods.The mycelium of morchella fasciculata grows and can
withstand higher carbon dioxide concentration. When the carbon dioxide concentration
reaches 2.2% in the air, mycelium growth reaches the maximum.
5. Phspire morchella 4-5 months each spring and autumn August - September rain
occurs at an altitude of 800-3200 - m Yang, birch, pine, cypress of broad-leaved forest or
predominantly fir, spruce, mixed forest and prairie grass, river, mountain slopes,
meadows, and the fire mountain, farmyard vegetable field, lawn humus content such as
the high places, but most of the habitat is the first autumn winter or early spring mountain
on fire or round Ye Yang, tallow, throws broad-leaved forest, such as wood of soil humus
thicker (usually 7 to 15 cm thick), pH value of 6-8 of the ground.Therefore, in the bionic
cultivation of morchella vulgaris, the pH value required in the preparation of raw materials
is higher than the pH value of mycelium mother culture, the pH value before sterilization
can be at 8.0, the pH value after sterilization can be reduced to about 7.5, in addition, the
appropriate pH value can also control the occurrence of pathogenic microorganisms.
6. No light is required during the growth stage of morchella morchella, but scattering
light (light intensity is about 60-10001x) is needed to stimulate the differentiation of the
primordium of ascomycetes.Light intensity or direct light is not conducive to the
differentiation of morchella ascomycetes, light intensity is easy to cause the top of
morchella burns, poor color, affecting the price of commodities.Therefore, it is necessary
to cover the shading net with the shading rate of 85% to 90% in the bionic cultivation of
morchella fuciformis to promote the growth and development of morchella fuciformis
Seed production
1. Maturation trichomonas ascomycosa fruit (pulse blackened, base of stalk just
turned yellow), glucose, sucrose, MgS04., KH2P04, K2HP04, yeast paste, wheat bran,
corn flour, hardwood shavings, rice bran, potato, calcium carbonate, hydrochloric acid,
sodium hydroxide and AGAR.
2. Method
2.1 preparation of medium
Improved PDA media:
Improved CYM medium: peptone 2g, glucose 20g, peptone 2g, potassium
dihydrogen phosphate 0.05g, magnesium sulfate 0.05g, dipotassium phosphate 0.05g,
potassium nitrate 1.5g, AGAR 18g.
Sawdust medium:
Wood chips 50g, glucose 20g, peptone 3g, AGAR 18-20g, water 1000mL. The
preparation process of the medium: potatoes were peeled and weighed 200g, cut into
small slices and added with appropriate amount of water (1000-1200ml) in a pot.Add 20g
AGAR into the filtrate, heat it slightly, and stir constantly until the AGAR melts.The
impurities were filtered again and then added with other drugs and insufficient water. The
culture solution was divided into two thirds of the test tube when it was heated, and the
operators should try their best to avoid the culture drops around the tube wall to reduce
the contamination of miscellaneous bacteria.Repackaging good tube to affix a tampon,
with 5-10 1 set of kraft paper or small bag on bandaging, vertical in the, in the pressure
cooker were sterilized 30 min to 121 ℃.
2.2 after the separation and culture of the parent species, the fruit was first rubbed
with 75% ethanol cotton balls, then washed with sterile water, sterile filter paper
absorbed water, and covered downward. The sterile operation was hung in a wide-mouth
bottle, and the spores were then collected, and the fruit was taken out.Jar after
inoculation and petri dishes were 18 to 20 ℃ indoor light training.Mycelium germination,
contamination and colony size were observed every 5h.After the spore germination and
the formation of flocculated mycelium, the sterile operation was used to inoculate the
pollution-free mycelium in the wide-mouthed bottle with a small amount of medium and
inoculate it in the culture dish for purification culture.
2.3 preparation of original species and cultivated species: broadleaf sawdust 100kg,
bran 10-20kg, calcium superphosphate 0.5%, sucrose 1%, quicklime 1kg, gypsum 1kg,
material water ratio 1:1.2-1.8;Corn core 100kg, quicklime 1kg, gypsum 1kg, feed water
ratio 1:1.2-1.8: wheat grain 100kg, calcium carbonate 1%, quicklime 1%, and sucrose
1%(wheat grain should be soaked to the core in advance before use, and then the water
should be allowed to dry before adding auxiliary materials to the bottle)
The culture material of the original and cultivated species of the morchella edulis can
be used in general. In the process of production, the material should be mixed evenly.
The pH value should be around 8 before sterilization.Use a 17cm x 33cm high density
polyethylene or polypropylene bag, each bag contains 500-600g of dry material, the
phosphate fertilizer is crushed and sieved by water for 1d before mixing, and its
supernatant is dissolved by water. On the second day, the gypsum and lime are mixed
with bran or rice bran, and then added into the main material.Water and mix well, add
water according to water ratio 1:1. 3, and after bagging, sterilization, sterilization, 6 to 8 h,
normal pressure and high pressure of 1.5 kg/m31h, then purified strains were inoculated
in the autoclave is covered a layer of about 1 cm of sawdust medium fire soil, loading 18
to 22 ℃ dark in the pure culture of the bacteria to full of whole bag (17 cm in diameter,
high 33 cm), sclerotium with 80%, cultivation of material surface.
Cultivation techniques
1.Selection of planting season
Morchella vulgaris belongs to low temperature fungi and avoiding high temperature
season is the general principle of bionic cultivation of morchella vulgaris.Spire morchella
mycelia growth is the most suitable temperature for 18 to 25 ℃. Temperature ascoma
differentiation for 4 to 12 ℃, growth of ascoma optimum temperature of 12-16 ℃,
according to the growth of the mycelium and ascoma optimum temperature, combined
with the climate conditions in the region, to the spires of morchella cultivation time to
adjust.Therefore, cultivation and inoculation of morchella should be made in early
summer, and planting season should be before the onset of frost.
2. Selection of cultivated land
Choose slightly acidic red and yellow sandy loam, and it is better for legume or
gramineous crop rotation or uncultivated land to have a certain slope for drainage, but
the slope should not be more than 15" to avoid rain washing.In the early spring of the first
year, the soil was thoroughly turned over, and weeds and roots were burned to increase
the content of phosphorus and potassium in the soil.In the future, dig the plot again for
1-2 times to decompose and disinfect naturally.1 month before planting, apply 30-37.5t of
rot fertilizer per hectare in combination with land consolidation.
The cultivated land should be selected in places with clean environment, fresh air
and pollution-free water quality. Meanwhile, it should also be provided with low-lying land
and convenient water and electricity.In addition to the site selection, the planting site
should also take into account the heat protection, shading and supporting facilities.Spire
morchella is low temperature type bacteria, but send the fungus period required
temperature should be 18 to 25 ℃. And ascoma "life activities exuberant growth period,
so is better for cultivation of heat preservation and air permeability.The requirements of
air relative humidity for different growth stages of morchella edulis can be controlled
artificially, but the duration of moisturization is related to the performance of cultivated
land.
In order to ensure high yield and quality of bionic cultivation of morchella, the
selection of morchella is a key step in the whole production process.The choice of strains
requires pure, positive, strong and embellish.High purity, no mixed bacterial infection, no
plaque, no inhibition line: normal growth of the bacteria, with the characteristics of
parental authenticity: robust growth of the mycelium of the strong finger is good: moisture
content of the bacteria is moderate, no dry shrinkage and loose phenomenon.Excellent
trichomonas oryzae is mainly composed of thick, dense, vigorous and uniformly
distributed mycelia of the mother species in the slant culture medium. Without other
miscellaneous bacterial infection, it has certain ability to climb walls.In addition, the
culture medium in test tube was clean and free of impurities, and there was no atrophy in
the culture medium.
3.Cultural materials
Humus soil, wood ash, ordinary Portland cement, wood shavings, fungus materials
(poplar, southwest birch, elm, ash), polymyxin.
4. Seeding method
Chamber cultivation
For each pile, 7 pieces of wood (fresh weight about 25kg) are used. Generally, the
sowing method of morchella edulis is to spread and transfer the bacterial species to the
cultivation site in a good place. The soil, grass ash and ordinary Portland cement are first
scattered on the ground.
Ecological cultivation
The reclaimed tillage and woodland for planting will be laid into a strip of flat ground
along the contour line of the planting plot. The spacing between the center of the strip
(line spacing) is 1.5m.Backfill soil to pond deep 1/2 or 2/3, add a small amount of plant
ash around 5 cm from the seedlings and ordinary Portland cement, again into bacteria
package, fungus bag by planting material inoculation spire morchella mother in 22 ℃
temperature 30 d, cultivate each pond buried package volume is 200 g;Continue to
backfill to tong time.
Post-seeding management
Root watering and weeding were carried out twice within 1 month after planting, to
maintain soil moisture and prevent weeds from breeding.Then, from January to June of
the next year, shading (shading net with shading rate of 85% to 90%) and spraying water
were conducted to maintain soil and air humidity (generally, soil moisture content of
about 65% and air relative humidity control between 80% and 90%) of farmland or
converted farmland and forest land respectively, and to promote the occurrence of the
fungus entity of spike-gut.
With the harvest
Timely harvest is one of the key measures for the bionic cultivation of morchella
vulgaris.Early harvest yield low too late harvest top morbid mortierella brown, tissue gets
old fruit cysts discolored, lost commercial value.Spire morchella ascoma mature with
stipe flaxen advisable, stipe brown marked at the beginning, but in general we harvest in
the production of ascoma with eight mature advisable, the harvest of ascoma neatly,
ribbed wider, edge thicker, taste good, delicious, good appearance, easy in stocking
transportation, long shelf life.It takes 7-12d from juvenile mushrooms to harvest. When
harvesting, gently grasp the fungus handle with 3 fingers of the left hand, and gently pry
the fruit sacs with the right hand with non-metal materials such as bamboo chips.After
harvest, the top morchella should first remove the impurities attached on the mushroom
body, and then store them separately according to different grades. Soft things should be
put inside the basket for gathering mushrooms to avoid bruising the mushroom body surface 

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